Type 1 diabetes is a lifelong disease that develops when the pancreas stops producing insulin. Insulin lets sugar (glucose) enter body cells, where it is used for energy.
Without insulin, sugar remains in the blood and the blood sugar level rises above what is safe for the body. If the blood sugar level becomes very high, a life-threatening emergency (diabetic ketoacidosis) can develop. Over time, persistent high blood sugar levels damage blood vessels and nerves throughout the body and increase the risk of eye, heart, blood vessel, nerve, and kidney disease.
Type 1 diabetes can develop at any age; however, it usually develops in children and young adults, which is why it was formerly called juvenile diabetes. It has also been called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) because insulin injections must be taken daily. About 5 to 10% of all people with diabetes have type 1 diabetes.
Type 1diabetes develops because of an autoimmune response in which the body does not recognize some of its own cells and destroys them. In type 1 diabetes, the cells that produce insulin are destroyed. What causes the autoimmune response is unknown. Some people inherit a tendency for the disease. However, the disease may not develop even in these people without the presence of environmental factors, such as exposure to certain viral infections.
Symptoms of type 1 diabetes usually develop quickly, over a few days to weeks, and are caused by blood sugar levels rising above the normal range (hyperglycemia).Early symptoms may be overlooked, especially if the person has recently had on illness, such as influenza.
Early symptoms include:
Sometimes the blood sugar level rises very high before a person knows something is wrong. Because insulin is not available, the cells in the body are unable to get the sugar they need for energy. When the cells do not receive sugar, the body begins to break down fat for energy. When this happens, ketones or fatty acids are produced and enter the bloodstream, causing the chemical imbalance called diabetic ketoacidosis, which is an emergency situation.
Symptoms of very high blood sugar include
Exams & Tests
A medical history, physical exam, and blood tests are required to make the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes.
MANY PEOPLE find out that they have type 1 diabetes when they are admitted to a hospital for diabetic ketoacidosis. If their symptoms are severe, they may need to be closely monitored in an intensive acre unit. Treatment for diabetic ketoacidosis includes fluids given through a vein (intravenous, or IV), insulin to decrease blood sugar level, and close monitoring for changes in the person’s condition.
Type 1 diabetes requires lifelong treatment to keep blood sugar levels within a safe range. People with type 1 diabetes often experience blood sugar levels outside of safe range. Blood sugar levels below a safe range (hypoglycemia) can develop quickly and lead to an emergency in only a few minutes. On the other hand, high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia) usually develop slowly over hours or days.
nu-beca Blood Glucose Meter :
Screening tests and exams need to done regularly to monitor for the development of complications from diabetes, such as eye, kidney, heart, blood vessel, and nerve diseases.
Treatment for children includes all of the above measures to keep blood sugar levels within a safe range. It should also allow for normal growth and development.
People with type 1 diabetes can live long, healthy lives if they keep their blood sugar levels as close to normal as possible. The right combination of foods, physical activity, and insulin each day is required to achieve this goal. When a small child has diabetes, the parents assume the responsibility for balancing these factors; as the child grows and develops, he or she assumes more and more responsibility for the diabetes care.
Note: All people with diabetes should seek medical advice before they make any dietary changes.